Mpumulo waukulu monga chimanga cha ku Ukraine chinatumizidwa, koma vuto lazakudya silikupita kulikonse



CNN

Monga Razoni adachoka ku doko la Ukraine la Odesa Lolemba ndi katundu woyamba wa tirigu kuyambira masiku oyambirira a nkhondo ya Russia ku Ukraine, panali mpumulo wochokera ku Somalia kupita ku Turkey, Indonesia ndi China, chifukwa cha momwe mayikowa akhala akudalira tirigu ku Ukraine kuti akumane. zosowa zawo za tsiku ndi tsiku.

Anthu mamiliyoni ambiri adakanthidwa ndi njala pomwe kutsekeka kwa Russia kukuwonjezera mitengo yambewu, yomwe idakwera kwambiri chaka chino pomwe matani opitilira 20 miliyoni a tirigu ndi chimanga aku Ukraine adatsekeredwa ku Odesa.

Koma ngakhale Mgwirizano wa UN-brokered to kukweza kutsekeka kwachepetsa mitengo yambewu, akatswiri ati kutumiza komwe kwatsala pang’ono kuchokera ku Ukraine sikuthetsa vutoli mwachangu, komwe kukuchulukirachulukira chifukwa chazovuta zomwe zachitika chifukwa cha mliri, nyengo, mikangano, zoletsa kutumizira zakudya komanso kukwera mtengo.

Zinthu zonsezi “zikhalapo kwakanthawi,” a Laura Wellesley, wofufuza wamkulu pazachilengedwe komanso chikhalidwe cha anthu a Chatham House, adauza CNN. “Zitha kukhala kuti tikuwonanso kukwera kwamitengo yazakudya, komanso kukwera kwachakudya kotetezeka, koma osati kuthetsa vutoli posachedwa.”

Njala yapadziko lonse lapansi yakula kwambiri, kuchokera pa anthu 135 miliyoni omwe alibe chakudya chokwanira mu 2019 mpaka 345 miliyoni mu 2022, malinga ndi World Food Programme (WFP). Mulinso “anthu 50 miliyoni m’maiko 45 omwe akugogoda pakhomo la njala,” a David Beasley, wamkulu wa WFP, adauza atolankhani. Komiti ya House Foreign Affairs pa Julayi 20, monga adayitanitsa maiko ena omwe amapereka, monga mayiko a Gulf, kuponda mu “chiwonongeko chopewera.”

Mavuto amasiku ano ndi oipitsitsa kuposa kukwera kwamitengo yazakudya kuyambira 2007 mpaka 2008 ndi 2010 mpaka 2012, zomwe zidayambitsa zipolowe padziko lonse lapansi, kuphatikiza zipolowe. ku Middle East.

Akatswiri okhudzana ndi chitetezo chazakudya achenjeza za chiopsezo chachikulu cha geopolitical ngati palibe kanthu. Chaka chino chawona kale kusokonekera kwa ndale ku “Sri Lanka, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, zipolowe komanso zomwe zikuchitika ku Kenya, Peru, Pakistan, Indonesia …

Razoni imanyamula pafupifupi matani 26,500 a chimanga.

Ku Horn of Africa, a zaka zinayi chilala zadzetsa kusowa kwa chakudya ndi njala, malinga ndi magulu othandizira. Zipatala zaku Somalia zikuwona kuchuluka kwakusowa kwa zakudya m’thupi pambuyo pazaka za mvula zomwe zalephera, kuwirikiza kawiri kwa mitengo ya tirigu komanso kugwa kwachuma kwa mliri wa Covid-19.

Ijabu Hassan anataya ana atatu chifukwa chosowa zakudya m’thupi chaka chino. kuuza CNN kuti mwana wake wamkazi wazaka ziwiri anakomoka ndipo anamwalira paulendo wopita ku likulu la dziko la Mogadishu kukafuna thandizo.

Iye anati: “Ndinalira kwambiri, ndinakomoka.

Makolo osimidwa ngati Hassan akufuna kuchira, bungwe la UN likuyerekeza anthu 7 miliyoni – kapena opitilira theka la anthu aku Somalia – alibe chakudya chokwanira.

Pakadali pano, anthu aku Afghan awona moyo wawo ukuchoka zoyipa mpaka zoyipa kuyambira pomwe a Taliban adalanda mphamvu mu 2021. United States itachoka mwachangu mdzikolo mu Ogasiti watha, Washington ndi ogwirizana nawo adadula ndalama zapadziko lonse lapansi kudzikolo, lomwe lakhala likuthandiza kwambiri kwazaka zambiri, ndikuyimitsa pafupifupi $ 7 biliyoni ya dzikolo. nkhokwe zakunja.

Mavuto azachuma ku Afghanistan akhala akuyandikira zaka zambiri, chifukwa cha umphawi, mikangano ndi chilala. Koma chaka chino, popeza kukolola kocheperako kunadzetsa njala m’dziko lonselo, mizere yayitali yothandizira yafika ponseponse ngakhale kumadera apakati a likulu la Kabul.

Mikangano yomwe yakhalapo kwanthawi yayitali m’maiko ngati Somalia ndi Afghanistan yasokoneza kuthekera kwa anthu kupeza chakudya, ndipo vuto lanyengo likungowonjezera zinthu. Chilala m’madera omwe amalima kwambiri, monga Europe ndi North America, chakweza mitengo yazakudya.

Mwana wazaka 2 uyu akulephera kuyenda. Iye ndi m’modzi mwa anthu 6 miliyoni omwe atsala pang’ono kufa ndi njala

Nyengo yadzaoneni kumadera onse a kumpoto kwa Africa ndi chikumbutso chodetsa nkhawa kuti, kutsekeka kapena kutsekeka, chakudya pano chilibe chitetezo. Derali limadalira tirigu wochokera ku Ulaya, makamaka Ukraine. Mwachitsanzo, Tunisia amapeza pafupifupi theka la tirigu wake kuchokera kudzikoli kuti apange chakudya cha tsiku ndi tsiku.

Zomwe zachokera ku EarthDaily Analytics, zopezedwa pogwiritsa ntchito zithunzi za satellite, zikuwonetsa momwe zimavutira kuti mayiko ena azitha kubisa kusiyana kulikonse. Kuyang’ana chivundikiro cha mbewu ku Morocco, zithunzizi zikuwonetsa “nyengo yowopsa yatirigu” mdziko muno, zomwe zidatsika kwambiri kuposa zaka zaposachedwa, chifukwa cha chilala chomwe chidayamba kumapeto kwa 2021 ndikupitilira kumayambiriro kwa chaka chino.

Morocco imalandira gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu a tirigu kuchokera ku Ukraine ndi 40% yokulirapo kuchokera ku France, malinga ndi Mickael Attia, katswiri wazomera ku EarthDaily Analytics.

Fatima Abdullahi atambasula dzanja lake kuti agwire mwana wake wamkazi wa miyezi 8, Abdi, yemwe ali m'chipatala chifukwa cha kuperewera kwa zakudya m'thupi ku Somalia mu July.

“Chilala chomwe chilipo ku North Africa, makamaka ku Morocco, chikusokoneza kwambiri luso lawo lopangira mbewu zawo, osanenanso kuti m’mbuyomu, dziko la Ukraine linali limodzi mwa mayiko omwe amagulitsa chakudya mdziko muno. Mtengo wosinthira izi ndi wokwera kwambiri komanso ndizovuta, “Attia adauza CNN.

“Dziko likufunika kugula zinthu kuchokera kumayiko ena chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake – chaka chilichonse chakudya chamayiko chimakhala chokwera kwambiri kuposa kupanga – komanso chifukwa dzikoli limakhala ndi vuto la nyengo, chilala komanso kusintha kwanyengo zipangitsa kuti zinthu ziipireipire mtsogolo.”

Kupanga tirigu ku Ukraine, nayenso, akuyembekezeka kukhala 40% pansi kuposa chaka chatha, popeza minda yake imakhudzidwa ndi nkhondo; feteleza ndi mankhwala ophera tizilombo ndizovuta kupeza; Komanso chifukwa cha kuzizira koyambirira kwa masika komanso kuuma kumadzulo kwa dzikolo, Attia adati, ndikuwonjezera kuti zotsatira zake zitha mpaka chaka chamawa.

“Ngati mbewu za Chiyukireniya zikusowa pang’ono, zikusowa chifukwa chochepa komanso zovuta kutumiza kunja, izi zidzabweretsa chakudya chokwanira chaka chino ndi chotsatira,” adatero.

Amalonda ena akuluakulu ogulitsa tirigu nawonso akhudzidwa kwambiri ndi nyengo yoipitsitsa chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo. France nayo iyenera kutulutsa tirigu wochepera 8% kuposa chaka chatha, Attia adati.

“May anali owuma ku Europe ambiri, komanso otentha kwambiri ku Western Europe, zomwe zidakhudza mbewu zochokera ku France ndi Spain, makamaka,” adatero Attia. Mwezi wa June unalinso wouma komanso wotentha m’madera ambiri a ku Ulaya, ndipo unachulukitsa mbewu ku France, Spain ndi Romania.”

Panthawiyi, zoyesayesa za mayiko ambiri zochepetsera vuto la kusowa kwa chakudya zidathetsedwa chifukwa cha mliriwu. Zinapangitsa kuti chuma chapadziko lonse chigwere m’chaka cha 2020, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti ntchito ndi mayendedwe azivuta. Maboma adayamba kukumana ndi kukwera kwa mitengo komanso mitengo yazakudya padziko lonse lapansi idayamba kukwera pomwe kusokonekera kwa kupanga komanso kufunikira kwakukulu kuchokera kumayiko ngati China “kunali kukulitsa kuchulukana pakati pa kufunikira ndi kufunikira ndikukweza mitengo,” atero a Wellesley, waku Chatham House.

Chuma chamayiko osauka chasiyidwa m’mavuto pomwe mayiko omwe amapeza ndalama zapakati amakhala ndi ngongole zazikulu, zomwe zimachepetsa maboma awo kupereka maukonde otetezedwa ndi zinthu zomwe zingathandize anthu omwe ali pachiwopsezo kwambiri panthawi yamavuto azakudya, adatero.

Ku Peru ndi ku Brazil, anthu omwe amagwira ntchito m’magawo akuluakulu osakhazikika adataya ndalama zomwe amapeza komanso mphamvu zomwe amapeza panthawi yotseka mliriwu. “Chifukwa chake anthuwa adachoka m’magulu apakati kupita osauka … ku Brazil chiwerengero cha anthu omwe ali ndi vuto lalikulu la chakudya ndichokwera kwambiri,” Maximo Torero, katswiri wazachuma wa Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), adauza CNN.

Mu 2021, 36% ya anthu aku Brazil anali pachiwopsezo chokhala ndi njala, kupitilira avareji yapadziko lonse lapansi koyamba, malinga ndi Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV)bungwe la maphunziro ku Brazil, lomwe linasanthula deta ya Gallup.

Mlimi wina wa ku Ukraine akugwira ntchito m’nyumba yosungiramo katundu ku Odesa, kum’mwera kwa Ukraine, mu July.

Nkhondo yabweretsa kunyumba kuti anthu ndi mayiko angati adalira dongosolo lazinthu zovuta komanso zapadziko lonse lapansi. Kudalira kwa Europe pa gasi waku Russia kuli anaulula zofooka zake. Ngakhale kuti mayiko monga Turkey, Egypt, Somalia, Congo ndi Tanzania ndi ena mwa omwe amadalira kwambiri tirigu wa ku Ukraine ndi ku Russia, mayiko ngati Eritrea adagula tirigu. tirigu yekha kuchokera ku mayiko awiri mu 2021.

Ofufuza akuwonetsa kuti vuto la chain chain litha kubweretsa njira zopezera madera kapena zigawo – koma izi zitha kutenga nthawi.

“Ndiroleni ndikupatseni chitsanzo – Africa imagwiritsa ntchito 3% ya feteleza padziko lonse lapansi,” adatero Torero, komabe chomera cha Dangote ku Nigeria chimatumiza 95.5% yazinthu zake ku Latin America. “Palibe chomwe chimatsalira ku Africa. Sikuti (chomera) cha Dangote sichikufuna kugulitsa kunja ku Africa, chifukwa (chifukwa) pali zopinga zambiri zotumizira kunja (kumadera ena) ku Africa, “adatero, ndikuwonjezera kuti zomangamanga sizinali bwino komanso chiopsezo chachikulu. .

Kupita kwina ndikukhazikitsa mfundo zoteteza kulinso vuto. Pamene mitengo yazakudya idakwera pambuyo pa kuwukira kwa Russia, mayiko adayamba kuletsa kutumiza kunja. India, dziko lomwe limapanga shuga wambiri, kugulitsa shuga kocheperako mpaka matani 10 miliyoni ndikuletsa kutumiza tirigu kunja. Lero, kuposa 20 mayiko kukhala ndi zoletsa zamtundu wina, ndikuchotsa chiyembekezo chakuti zinthuzi zingathandize kuthetsa njala kwina.

“Izi zimakhala ndi zotsatira zofulumira kukweza mitengo, koma pakapita nthawi, zimakhalanso zowononga kukhulupirirana komanso kulosera zamsika padziko lonse lapansi,” adatero Wellesley.

Ndiye pali nkhani ya mitengo ya feteleza yomwe imakhalabe yokwera chifukwa imakhala ndi mphamvu zambiri popanga ndipo Russia ndi Ukraine ndi omwe amagulitsa kwambiri zigawo zake zazikulu: urea, potashi ndi phosphate.

Akatswiri ena akuchenjeza kuti pamene kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza kukuchepa, tidzakolola zokolola zochepa mu 2023. Ndipo ngakhale kuti nkhawa yaikulu yakhazikika pa chakudya chambewu, ena akuda nkhawa kuti kupanga mpunga, mwala wapangodya wa zakudya zambiri ku Asia ndi kum’mwera kwa Sahara ku Africa. , zitha kugunda kwambiri chifukwa cha kukwera mtengo kwa feteleza.

Ngakhale pakali pano pali mpunga wambiri, chitetezo ndi anthu omwe amatembenukira ku mpunga m’malo mwa tirigu zitha kukhudza mitengo. “Kum’mwera kwa Sahara ku Africa kumagulitsa mpunga wochuluka kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, kotero ngati mtengo wa mpunga ukukwera, ndiye kuti mayiko omwe ali pachiopsezo adzakhudzidwa kwambiri,” adatero Torero wa FAO.

Mayi wina wa ku Afghanistan amatenga chakudya cha mwezi ndi mwezi cha banja lake kuchokera kumalo ogawa chakudya cha World Food Programme m'boma la Jaie Rais kumadzulo kwa Kabul.

Sitima yapamadzi ya Razoni, yolembetsedwa ku Sierre Leone pakali pano ikupita ku Lebanon, imanyamula pafupifupi matani 26,500 a chimanga. “Kuti tikwaniritse mayendedwe otumizidwa mu Ogasiti 2021, tifunika kuwona zombo zisanu ndi ziwiri zikuchitika tsiku lililonse kuti zinthu zibwerere komwe tinali,” a Jonathan Haines, wowunikira wamkulu pagulu lazamalonda la Gro Intelligence, adauza CNN. Pali zokayikitsa zambiri ngati izi zingachitike, koma kuyenda mosakayikira “kudzachitikadi,” anawonjezera.

Boma la Ukraine ndi Unduna wa Zachitetezo ku Turkey adati zombo zina zitatu zikuyembekezeka kuchoka madoko aku Ukraine Black Sea Lachisanu zodzaza ndi tirigu.

Mitengo ya tirigu ikatsika mpaka nkhondo isanayambike, Torero akuda nkhawa kuti kubweza kwa mbewu zaku Ukraine ndi ku Russia pamsika kungachepetsenso mitengo ya tirigu ndipo potero kumapangitsa kuti alimi akhale osauka, omwe amawononga feteleza wokwera komanso mtengo wamagetsi kuti abzale mbewu zawo.

Monga momwe vuto lazakudya lakhudzira anthu mosiyanasiyana, mayankho ake ndi ovuta komanso osiyanasiyana. Izi zikuphatikiza kusintha kwa momwe feteleza amagwiritsidwira ntchito, kuyika ndalama m’maukonde oteteza anthu, kuchepetsa kupanga chakudya kuchokera ku kudalira mafuta oyambira pomwe akuchepetsa mpweya wotenthetsera mpweya, komanso kukakamiza kuti gawo laulimi likhale lolimba kuti lithe kuthana ndi zovuta zapadziko lonse lapansi posintha maubwenzi akupanga ndi malonda, akatswiri akutero. .

“Zonsezi zikuwoneka ngati zinthu zoti zichitike tsiku lina chifukwa chazovuta zomwe zikuchitika. Palibe, “adatero Wellesley. “Ndizovuta zomwe zikupangitsa kuti zinthu zichitike masiku ano (ndipo) zizichitikanso m’zaka zikubwerazi – makamaka pamene nyengo ikupitilirabe kuvutikira.”