The World Health Organisation estimates that one in three women globally is subjected to violence in their lifetime.
People across the world have marked the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, demanding greater action.
The Council of Europe estimates 12% to 15% of women in Europe face violence in the home every day.
In France tens of thousands took to the streets of Paris and other big cities.
Spain has strengthened its laws to tackle the problem. But campaigners say new kinds of violence are emerging through new technologies, including artificial intelligence
Ana Redondo, Spain’s Minister for Equality, joined tens of thousands of marchers in Madrid.
“What is important is that the voice of women and the voice of all feminists against violence, against all types of violence against women, is heard loud and strong,” she said.
In Rome the day was given more significance following the recent killing of a 22 year old student, allegedly by an ex-boyfriend that shocked Italians.
And there were similar rallies in the US, Latin America and Asia.
Conflict-related sexual violence is also a global scourge.
In the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, armed groups prey on women and girls in increasingly coordinated ways – child trafficking, kidnapping, and forcing women and girls into sex work in North and South Kivu provinces.
Both have endured decades of conflict as armed groups fight for control of their mineral wealth.
These crimes rarely come to light: for each rape reported in connection with a conflict, the United Nations estimates that 10 to 20 cases go undocumented.